Victim groups

According to the intention of the artist Gunter Demnig, Stumbling Blocks are laid for all victims of National Socialism. 
The victims also include the survivors of camps and prisons and those who fled Germany. 

  • Jews

    Victim group Jews

    Jews constitute by far the largest victim group. Around 5.6 to 6.3 million people defined as Jewish in Europe during the National Socialist era fell victim to the genocide of the Holocaust or Shoah.

  • “Asoziale” and “Berufskriminelle”

    “Asoziale” and “Berufskriminelle”.

    Between 1933 and 1945, several tens of thousands of people were declared “asozial” (nazi jargon for “antisocial”) or “Berufskriminelle” (nazi jargon for “professional criminals”) by the Gestapo, welfare authorities or courts. These people often had in common that they did not fit into the image of the capable, well-adjusted, National Socialist “Volksgenosse” or that they consciously or unconsciously pursued a lifestyle that did not fit into the National Socialist ideology. Amongst them were beggars, homeless people, maladjusted welfare delinquents, and petty criminals with petty convictions. Also homosexuals have often been declared “asozial”. It was not until February 2020 that the German parliament spoke out in favor of recognizing these people as victims of Nazi injustice.

    List of stumbling stones in Frankfurt commemorating people who were persecuted as “Asoziale” and “Berufskriminelle”:

    Name (Geburtsname)
    Geburtsdatum
    Verfolgungsschicksal
    Todesdatum
    Stadteil, Straße
    Verlegedatum
    Schellhaas, Margarete
    (Reuel)
    * 27.7.1910
    asozial/Widerstand; 9.–14.6.1942 Gefängnis Frankfurt, 30.10.1944 Ravensbrück
    7.1.1945
    Niederrad, Hahnstr. 18
    22.6.2017
    Schmitt, Karl
    * 23.10.1894
    asozial/Widerstand; 26.1.1939 Haft Frankfurt, 10.2.1939 Buchenwald
    24.12.1939
    Niederrad, Hahnstr. 18
    22.6.2017
  • Forced laborers

    Victim group of forced laborers.

    List of Stolpersteine in Frankfurt commemorating people who were conscripted as forced laborers:

    Name (Geburtsname)
    Geburtsdatum
    Verfolgungsschicksal
    Todesdatum
    Stadteil, Straße
    Verlegedatum
    Bagno, Iwan
    * 11.11.1925
    Zwangsarbeit; 4.8.1944 Hadamar
    unbekannt
    Niederrad, Goldsteinstr. 114
    20.5.2016
    Ehrenfeld, Emil W.
    * 27.12.1899
    1.2.1941 bis 30.5.1943 Zwangsarbeit, 14.2.1945 Theresienstadt
    befreit
    Niederrad, Kelsterbacher Str. 8
    23.10.2018
    Girgulski, Maria
    (Hagel)
    * 6.9.1885
    Zwangsarbeit;
    überlebt
    Innenstadt, Albusstr. 24
    19.5.2016
    Laurinec, Jan
    * 11.5.1901
    Zwangsarbeit; 1943 Buchenwald
    24.8.1944
    Nordend, Schwarzburgstr. 51
    9.5.2010
    Nikitenko, Wasil
    * 24.4.1924
    Zwangsarbeit ; 1944 nach Hadamar
    unbekannt
    Niederrad, Goldsteinstr. 114
    20.5.2016
    Petitijean, Raymond
    * 27.4.1920
    28.5.–6.10.1943 Zwangsarbeit bei Firma Messer und Co., 1.11.1943 Haft, 31.10.1944 Todesurteil
    12.12.1944
    Ostend, Hanauer Landstr. 326
    27.6.2021
    Pivovarczik, Helena
    * 21.2.1922
    Zwangsarbeit ; Suizid
    29.05.42
    Niederrad, Kelsterbacher Str.28
    20.6.2013
    Prochorow, Nikolai
    * 11.5.1923
    Zwangsarbeit; 1944 Mauthausen Ebensee
    unbekannt
    Niederrad, Goldsteinstr. 114
    20.5.2016
    Schwelle Messer & Co
    * 0.1.1900
    Messer & Co., Gmbh, Apparate Und Werkzeuge. Hier In Zwangsarbeit 1941–45, Frauen und Männer aus Russland 145, Weissruthenien 27, Bulgarien 5, Litauen 50, Frankreich 120, Belgien 25, Niederlande 65, Italien 7
    0.1.1900
    Ostend, Hanauer Landstr. 326
    27.6.2021
    Slabtschenko, Alexandr
    * 22.1.1923
    Zwangsarbeit ; 1943 Buchenwald
    27.3.1944
    Niederrad, Goldsteinstr. 114
    20.5.2016
  • Victims of “Euthanasia” murders

    Victim group of mentally ill or disabled people (“euthanasia” murder).

    The National Socialist regime used the word “euthanasia” (Greek for “beautiful death” or “good death”) as a misleading and trivialising term for the systematic killing of actually or supposedly physically impaired or mentally ill people.

    Between 1939 and 1945, over 300,000 people died in various murder campaigns in the German Reich and in occupied Europe. Under the camouflage name “Aktion T4” (named after the headquarters of the responsible office at Tiergartenstraße 4 in Berlin), about 70,000 people were murdered in the gas chambers of the six “sanatoriums and nursing homes” in Grafeneck, Brandenburg, Hartheim, Pirna, Bernburg and Hadamar, which were converted into central killing centres, between the beginning of 1940 and August 1941.

    In Hadamar in central Hesse, about 14,500 people with disabilities and mental illnesses were murdered in a gas chamber, by lethal injections and medication, and by deliberate starvation between January 1941 and March 1945 as part of the so-called Aktion T4.

    Until now, Stolpersteine for this group of people could only be laid if relatives requested it. There is no database of “euthanasia” victims corresponding to the online database of the Memorial Book of the Federal Archives “Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945” (Victims of the Persecution of the Jews under National Socialist Tyranny in Germany 1933-1945). Data protection reasons and consideration for the families from which the victims came are cited against such a database.

    List of stumbling stones in Frankfurt commemorating people who died as a result of the “euthanasia” murders:

    Name (Geburtsname)
    Geburtsdatum
    Verfolgungsschicksal
    Todesdatum
    Stadteil, Straße
    Verlegedatum
    Alberti, Karl
    * 17.12.1905
    §175, T4; Haft 14.2.1939, Anstalt Eichberg, 1941 Hadamar
    22.01.1941
    Niederrad, Kelsterbacherstr. 73
    24.6.2019
    Berberich, Helene
    (Ebelsbacher, verw. Fontheim)
    * 2.10.1874
    T4; 16.9.1941 Bendorf-Sayn, Weilmünster, 12.7.1942 unbekannt
    unbekannt
    Westend, Leerbachstr. 50
    22.6.2019
    Brandenstein, Karl
    * 27.5.1907
    §175, T4; Haft 16.3.1939, F-Preungesheim, 23.8.1939 Eichberg, 19.2.1941 Hadamar
    19.2.1941
    Rödelheim, Hattsteinerstr. 6
    24.6.2019
    Breslau, Ignaz
    * 3.4.1870
    T4; Heilanstalt Herborn, Landesanstalt Brandenburg
    17.2.1941
    Eschersheim, Haeberlinstr. 6
    17.2.2009
    Butterweck, Lina
    * 30.11.1913
    T4; 30.4.1941 Weilmünster, „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    12.06.1941
    Westend, Eschersheimer Landstr. 107
    9.5.2010
    Einhorn, Sabine
    (Bletz)
    * 4.1.1890
    T4; 1932 Hadamar, 1939 Herborn, Gießen 25.9.1940 Brandenburg
    01.10.1940
    Ostend, Obermainstr. 6
    22.10.2019
    Fürth , Leopold
    * 10.2.1882
    T4; 2.2.1938 Hadamar, 25.9.1940 Brandenburg
    01.10.1940
    Ostend, Obermainstr. 12
    24.6.2019
    Geiss, Lina
    (Heimbächer)
    * 7.5.1894
    T4; 1941 Anstalt Herborn, 7.3.1941 Hadamar
    07.03.1941
    Bahnhofsviertel, Moselstr. 46
    22.6.2017
    Gerlach, Margarethe
    (Tamm)
    * 5.5.1883
    T4; 1941 „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    13.2.1941
    Eschersheim, Neumannstr. 20
    3.9.2008
    Haag, Adam
    * 20.1.1876
    T4; Heilanstalt Herborn, 12.3.1941 „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    12.3.1941
    Bockenheim, Leipziger Str. 19
    21.6.2014
    Hess, Jakob
    * 7.4.1916
    T4; 1934 „Heilanstalt“ Kalmenhof
    19.8.1939
    Altstadt, Hinter dem Lämmchen 4
    25.4.2008
    Hofmann, Elisabeth
    * 22.7.1900
    T4; 1934 Bethel Zwangssterilisation, 1939 Herborn, 13.2.1941 Hadamar
    13.02.1941
    Rödelheim, Kalkentalstr. 7
    24.6.2019
    Horn, Georg
    * 10.4.1882
    T4; 22.7.1922 Psychiatrie Gießen, 27.10.1922 Hadamar, 10.11.1924 Eichberg, 29.1.1941 Hadamar + 3.2.1941
    29.01.1941
    Höchst, Hostatostr. 9
    23.6.2019
    Janik, Ottilie
    * 17.6.1903
    T4; Hadamar
    20.1.1941
    Dornbusch, Am Dornbusch 3
    16.5.2015
    Kersten, Elisabeth
    * 23.12.1905
    T4; „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    20.4.1943
    Eckenheim, Am Eckenheimer Friedhof 1
    9.5.2010
    Kopp, Nikolaus
    * ?.?.1901
    § 175 und T4; 1941 „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    13.2.1941
    Gallus, Mainzer Landstr. 137
    6.6.2009
    Müller, Anna
    (Becker)
    * 18.11.1895
    T4; 1940 Merxhausen, 12.6.1941 Eichberg, 3.7.1941 Hadamar
    03.07.1941
    Rödelheim, Flußgasse 4
    23.6.2019
    Netter, Rosette
    * 31.10.1868
    T4; 4.2.1941 Heilanstalt Weilmünster, 7.2.1941 „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    07.02.1941
    Westend, Freiherr-vom-Stein-Str. 26
    21.6.2014
    Neuser, Edgar
    * 14.1.1922
    T4; 1926 Scheuern, 19.3.1941 Hadamar
    19.3.1941
    Gallus, Kostheimer Str. 15
    22.6.2019
    Pawel, Martin
    * 5.12.1893
    T4; 25.9.1940 Heilanstalt Gießen, 1.10.1940 Brandenburg
    1.10.1940
    Bockenheim, Sophienstr. 29
    21.6.2014
    Perlhefter, Günther
    * 7.9.1931
    T4; 3.6.1943 „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    3.9.1943
    Sachsenhausen, Schulstr. 26
    12.5.2012
    Schwemmer, Karlheinz
    * 30.8.1933
    T4; 5.3.1943 Haft, 9.8.1943 „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    12.08.1943
    Gallus, Gutenbergstr. 20
    11.5.2012
    Seeger, Marie
    * 6.11.1800
    T4; 1932 Hadamar, 1939 Herborn, 13.2.1941 Hadamar
    13.2.1941
    Bornheim, Thronerstaße 8
    24.6.2019
    Stogniew, Hermine
    (van Hasseln)
    * 26.7.1898
    T4; 13.2.1941„Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    13.2.1941
    Nordend, Neuhofstr. 25
    9.5.2010
    Waßmann, Karl
    * 25.12.1885
    T4; 1941 „Heilanstalt“ Hadamar
    14.3.1941
    Riederwald, Am Erlenbruch 10
    19.11.2011
    Zimmerer, Willy
    * 16.4.1901
    T4; 6.3.1944 Universitätsnervenklinik , 17.3.1944 Weilmünster, 13.10.1944 Hadamar
    18.12.1944
    Nordend, Rotlintstr. 41
    23.10.2018
  • Homosexuals

    Victim group Homosexuals.

    The legal persecution of homosexuals that had existed since the 19th century (§175) was radically tightend by the National Socialists in 1935. From 1937, homosexuals had to expect to be deported to a concentration camp for “re-education” after serving their sentence. Anyone who had “seduced more than one partner,” according to an order issued by Himmler in 1940, was generally to be placed in “preventive detention” after release from prison. Many of the homosexuals deported to concentration camps were murdered there. Others have been declared as “mentally ill” and have been killed in the “Euthanasie” program.

    Lecture “Stones against forgetting” (PDF)

    List of stumbling stones in Frankfurt commemorating homosexuals:

    Name (Geburtsname)
    Geburtsdatum
    Verfolgungsschicksal
    Todesdatum
    Stadteil, Straße
    Verlegedatum
    Alberti, Karl
    * 17.12.1905
    §175, T4; Haft 14.2.1939, Anstalt Eichberg, 1941 Hadamar
    22.01.1941
    Niederrad, Kelsterbacherstr. 73
    24.6.2019
    Boltzt, Johann
    * 19.9.1893
    §175; 10.7.1941 Dachau
    04.03.1942
    Westend, Savignystr. 55
    5.11.2007
    Born, Valentin
    * 18.11.1891
    §175; Haft 18.3.1942, 1943 Natzweiler, Flossenbürg
    5.3.1945
    Altstadt, Dominikanergasse 7
    22.6.2019
    Brandenstein, Karl
    * 27.5.1907
    §175, T4; Haft 16.3.1939, F-Preungesheim, 23.8.1939 Eichberg, 19.2.1941 Hadamar
    19.2.1941
    Rödelheim, Hattsteinerstr. 6
    24.6.2019
    Bütschli, Otto
    * 11.8.1907
    §175; Haft: 12.7.1939, 1939 Lager Rodgau, 1940 Gefängnis Preungesheim, 1941 Buchenwald, Groß-Rosen
    03.11.1941
    Westend, Körnerstr. 16
    22.6.2019
    Kahn, Jakob
    * 5.11.1882
    §175; Haft: 10.4.1937 und 2.5.1939, F-Preungesheim, 13. Juli 1939 Diez, 8.2.1940 Sachsenhausen
    12.4.1940
    Innenstadt, Allerheiligenstr. 26
    22.6.2019
    Kipp, Karl
    * 27.9.1902
    §175; Haft: 8.12.1939, 30.6.1940 Diez, 28.1.1942 Flossenbürg
    25.4.1942
    Altstadt, Berlinerstr. 32
    22.6.2019
    Korndörfer, Adolf
    * 2.5.1880
    §175; Haft: 16.5.1939, Frankfurt, Suizid
    27.07.1939
    Westend, Beethovenstr. 32
    22.6.2019
    Oppenheimer, Elias
    * 19.6.1886
    §175; Haft 18.9.1941, F-Preungesheim, 1942 Buchenwald
    13.5.1942
    Westend, Wöhlerstr. 6
    22.6.2019
    Stecker, Karl
    * 13.1.1900
    §175; Haft 4.1.1934, 1934 Freiendiez, 1936 Ziegenhain, 1938 Schwäbisch Hall, 1939 Esterwegen, 1940 Butzbach, 1942 -Gusen
    ??.12.1942
    Gallus, Frankenallee 60
    22.6.2019
  • Jehovah’s Witnesses

    Victim Group Jehovah’s Witnesses

    The members of the “Internationalen Bibelforscher-Vereinigung” (“International Bible Students Association”, since 1931 “Jehovah’s Witnesses”) were persecuted by the Nazi regime because of their resistance out of Christian conviction. In 1933, there were about 25,000 Jehovah’s Witnesses in Germany. The religious community was banned immediately after Hitler’s “Machtergreifung” (“seizure of power”) because they stood uncompromisingly by their faith and did not submit to the ideology of the Nazi regime. Jehovah’s Witnesses refused to give the Hitler salute, to perform military service and to give up their religious services. They also refused membership in Nazi organizations. They actively resisted the Nazi regime by distributing leaflets informing people about the injustice of the National Socialists.

    Almost half of the German Jehovah’s Witnesses were imprisoned, about 2,800 were sent to concentration camps, and about 950 lost their lives between 1933 and 1945. The survivors had not infrequently spent eight years or more in concentration camps. In Frankfurt, there were over 150 faith-active Jehovah’s Witnesses, all of whom were affected by the persecution. 112 were imprisoned; 15 lost their lives.

    List of stumbling stones in Frankfurt commemorating Jehovah’s Witnesses:

    Name (Geburtsname)
    Geburtsdatum
    Verfolgungsschicksal
    Todesdatum
    Stadteil, Straße
    Verlegedatum
    Eichhorn, Ludwig
    * 31.10.1899
    ZJ; Haft 24.3.1937 Frankfurt-Preungesheim, 2.9.1937–11.4.1945 Buchenwald
    befreit
    Niederrad, Breubergstr. 26
    22.6.2017
    Finkernagel, Karl
    * 29.8.1869
    ZJ; Buchenwald
    24.08.1937
    Bockenheim, Hamburger Allee 58
    18.5.2015
    Hild, Frieda
    (Buck)
    * 14.9.1892
    ZJ; 1938 Gefängnis Frankfurt
    30.04.1940
    Dornbusch, Marbachweg 291
    21.6.2014
    Hild, Willy
    * 30.12.1894
    ZJ; 25.5.1938 Buchenwald
    0.1.1900
    Dornbusch, Marbachweg 291
    21.6.2014
    Kaltwasser, Adam
    * 22.2.1891
    ZJ; 10.3.1937 Papenburg, 1939 Mauthausen
    19.4.1940
    Ginnheim, Ginnheimer Landstr. 198
    21.6.2014
    Kaltwasser, Wilhelmine
    (Heid)
    * 9.6.1890
    ZJ; 25.3.937 Haft Frankfurt
    0.1.1900
    Ginnheim, Ginnheimer Landstr. 198
    21.6.2014
    Kanne, Anna
    * 19.8.1882
    ZJ; 2.12.1936 Gefängnis Frankfurt, Moringen, Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück Mai 1945
    befreit
    Dornbusch, Marbachweg 328
    18.5.2018
    Kell, Bernhard
    * 21.1.1874
    ZJ; Haft 20.5.1938 Frankfurt, Buchenwald, Dachau, Lublin
    18.02.1944
    Bockenheim, Voltastr. 55
    18.5.2015
    Köninger , Anna
    (Schäfer)
    * 27.3.1880
    ZJ; 14.9.1937 F, 30.9.1937 Mannheim, 30.11.1937 Bruchsal, 21.2.–24.12.1938 Lichtenburg
    0.1.1900
    Nordend, Oederweg 126
    23.6.2017
    Krämer, Adolf
    * 27.7.1900
    ZJ; 1937 Haft Frankfurt, Buchenwald
    befreit
    Griesheim, Mainzer Landstr. 606
    21.5.2016
    Krieg, Oscar
    * 24.11.1884
    ZJ; 1937 Haft
    29.05.1945
    Sachsenhausen, Hedderichstr. 42
    19.5.2016
    Lehrbach, Emmy
    (Dentzer)
    * 8.7.1896
    ZJ; 26.1.1937 Frankfurt, Moringen, Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, Außenlager Mai 1945
    befreit
    Eschersheim, Hinter den Ulmen 22
    18.5.2018
    Lubowitzky, Paula
    (Walheim)
    * 10.1.1884
    ZJ; Haft: 18. 3.1937 Frankfurt-Preungesheim, 28.7.1937 Moringen, 21.2.1938 Lichtenburg, 15.5.1939–30.4.1945 Ravensbrück
    befreit
    Höchst, Loreleistr. 6
    24.6.2017
    Mayer, Balthasar
    * 7.4.1878
    ZJ; 1936 F-Preungesheim, Buchenwald, 1943 Dachau
    22.01.1945
    Griesheim, Fabriciusstr. 11
    22.6.2013
    Mayer, Elisabeth
    (Blamm)
    * 25.5.1882
    ZJ; Haft 1936 Frankfurt, Moringen, Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, befreit
    01.05.1945
    Griesheim, Fabriciusstr. 11
    22.6.2019
    Muth, Anna
    (Rühl)
    * 18.8.1899
    ZJ; 1937 Haft Frankfurt, Ravensbrück
    befreit
    Westend, Emser Brücke (Emserstr. 16)
    21.5.2016
    Muth, Ernst
    * 4.6.1897
    ZJ; 1937 Haft Frankfurt
    17.6.1939
    Westend, Emser Brücke (Emserstr. 16)
    21.5.2016
    Oechler, Anna
    * 30.11.1900
    ZJ; 30.10.1936 Frankfurt, Moringen, Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, Lager Hartzwalde Mai 1945
    befreit
    Dornbusch, Marbachweg 328
    18.5.2018
    Pater, Berta
    (Schäfer)
    * 17.11.1882
    ZJ; 29.10.1936 F, 23.6.1937 Moringen, 21.2.1938 Lichtenburg, Mai 1939 Ravensbrück, 1.7.1942 Auschwitz, 18.1.1945 Bergen-Belsen bis 15.4.1945
    befreit
    Nordend, Oederweg 126
    23.6.2017
    Reinhardt, Rudolf
    * 20.5.1886
    ZJ; Haft 1937 Frankfurt, Lichtenburg, Buchenwald befreit
    1.5.1945
    Innenstadt, Schützenstr. 7
    22.6.2019
    Schäfer, Elisabeth
    (Neff)
    * 3.9.1884
    ZJ; Haft 1937 Frankfurt, Moringen, Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, befreit
    1.6.1944
    Westend, Bockenheimer Landstr. 104
    22.6.2019
    Schättle, Marie
    (Steinbach)
    * 9.11.1883
    ZJ; 1937 Haft Frankfurt, Ravensbrück
    befreit
    Westend, Palmengartenstr. 3
    20.5.2016
    Schmid, Katharina
    (Reimann)
    * 1.1.1889
    ZJ; 1937 KZ Moringen, Ravensbrück, 1941 Auschwitz, 1945 Bergen-Belsen
    22.2.1945
    Sachsenhausen, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 40
    20.6.2013
    Steinbach, Valentin
    * 15.7.1891
    ZJ; 11.9.1936 Frankfurt Klapperfeld, 30.12.1936 Frankfurt, Hammelsgasse, 19.3.1937 Frankfurt-Preungesheim, 18.6.1937 Lichtenburg, 31.7.1937 Buchenwald, 29.8.1942 Mauthausen
    0.1.1900
    Nordend, Schwarzburgstr. 26
    23.6.2019
    Veith, Karoline
    * 17.6.1883
    ZJ, Mai 1936 Haft, August 1938 KZ Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, Bernburg
    13.6.1942
    Nordend, Rotlintstr. 70
    19.11.2013
    Winter, Luise
    * 13.3.1893
    ZJ; 5.3.1937 Frankfurt, Moringen, Lichtenburg, Ravensbrück, Außenlager Mai 1945
    befreit
    Westend, Bettinastr. 23
    19.5.2018
  • Resistance, victims of political persecution

    Victim group Resistance, victims of political persecution

    Immediately after the Nazis’ “Machtergreifung” (“seizure of power”), the workers’ parties SPD and KPD and their allied organizations such as the Rote Hilfe were banned, the free trade unions were smashed, and the works councils were replaced by Nazi organizations. Political resistance was paralyzed. In addition, there was a deep split between the SPD and the KPD, which reduced cooperation to a few personal contacts. In total, it is assumed that around 2,000 people took part in the resistance in Frankfurt; about 1,500 are known by name. More than 30 of them were sentenced to death by the Frankfurt “Volksgerichtshof” and the Kassel “Oberlandesgericht.” In addition to political resistance in a strict sense, there were also a variety of forms of resistance, e.g. Christian or humanitarian in motivation and were also persecuted without mercy by the Nazi regime.

    List of stumbling stones in Frankfurt commemorating people who took part in resistance or were persecuted for political reasons:

    Name (Geburtsname)
    Geburtsdatum
    Verfolgungsschicksal
    Todesdatum
    Stadteil, Straße
    Verlegedatum
    Becker, Bernhard
    * 7.12.1914
    Widerstand; 27.11.1937 Gestapohaft
    14.12.1937
    Nordend, Schwarzburgstr. 50
    15.10.2004
    Bender, Georg
    * 23.10.1902
    Widerstand; 14.10.1938 Volksgerichtshof Hochverrat
    befreit
    Nied, Schwedenpfad 21
    19.11.2013
    Bender, Helene
    (Grau)
    * 18.7.1907
    Widerstand; 1938 Haft
    4.5.1938
    Nied, Schwedenpfad 21
    19.11.2013
    Bild, Hans
    * 30.3.1904
    Widerstand; 1937 Haft Kassel, 1942 Sachsenhausen
    16.07.1942
    Gallus, Tevesstr. 27
    11.5.2012
    Breitinger, Anton
    * 19.6.1898
    Widerstand ; F-Preungesheim
    17.09.1942
    Bornheim, Neebstr. 3
    21.6.2013
    Ebert, Wilhelm
    * 11.8.1901
    Widerstand; 1942 Haft Frankfurt
    17.06.1942
    Fechenheim, Leo-Gans-Str. 21
    28.5.2016
    Ege, Albrecht
    * 31.1.1878
    Widerstand; 1942 Zuchthaus Frankfurt-Preungesheim
    23.1.1943
    Praunheim, Am Treutengraben 3
    25.4.2008
    Elison, Emma
    (Roman)
    * 12.12.1880
    Widerstand ; 13.3.1935 Frankfurt-Preungesheim, 11.4.1942 Ravensbrück, Auschwitz
    09.10.1941
    Innenstadt, Klingerstr. 25
    24.6.2017
    Elison, Fritz
    * 23.8.1886
    Widerstand ; 13.3.1935 und 1938 Frankfurt-Preungesheim, 4.2.1937–21.5.1940 Butzbach Freiendiez
    0.1.1900
    Innenstadt, Klingerstr. 25
    24.6.2017
    Fehler, Karl
    * 24.3.1905
    Widerstand ; 25.8.1941 Sachsenhausen
    19.12.1941
    Gallus, Tevesstr. 43
    3.9.2008
    Friesem, Clara
    * 27.12.1908
    Widerstand/"Roten Hilfe“; 1936 „Hochverrat“, Ravensbrück, 1942 Bernburg
    unbekannt
    Nordend, Herderstr. 27
    23.6.2017
    Gerhardt, Wilhelm
    * 21.7.1905
    Widerstand/KPD; Wehrmacht 8.10.1942, Bewährungseinheit 57. Division
    10.10.1943
    Niederrad, Odenwaldstr. 10
    22.6.2017
    Germann, Edmund
    * 13.9.1901
    Widerstand; 17.6.1941 „Hochverrat" F-Preungesheim, Hinrichtung
    17.09.1942
    Bahnhofsviertel, Niddastr. 64
    22.6.2014
    Hartmann, Fritz
    * 2.9.1905
    Widerstand ; 1940 Haft in Paris, Frankfurt Gusen/Mauthausen
    13.04.1945
    Höchst, Königsteiner Str. 49
    8.5.2012
    Häuslein, Otto
    * 3.1.1911
    Widerstand; 1941 „Hochverrat, Preungesheim, Hinrichtung
    17.09.1942
    Sachsenhausen, Bindingstr. 9
    22.6.2014
    Heps, Heinrich
    * 11.12.1908
    Widerstand; 1935–40 Zuchthaus, 1944 Strafbataillon 999
    26.03.1944
    Nied, Schmidtbornstr. 1
    13.7.2016
    Hugo, Wilhelm Adam
    * 18.7.1906
    Widerstand; 18.7.1941 „Hochverrat", F-Preungesheim, Hinrichtung
    17.09.1942
    Ostend, Linnéstr. 27
    22.6.2014
    Janke, Paul Heinrich
    * 26.7.1907
    Widerstand ; 1943 Gefängnis Frankfurt, Potsdam, Hinrichtung
    25.02.1945
    Innenstadt, Stiftstr. 17
    22.6.2014
    Latsch, Wilhelm
    * 11.4.1884
    Widerstand, 1943 Dachau
    12.2.1944
    Innenstadt, Stoltzestr. 14
    15.10.2004
    Lewin, Henry
    * 10.3.1902
    Widerstand ; 1935 Zuchthaus Frankfurt-Preungesheim
    02.02.1937
    Höchst, Königsteiner Str. 6
    3.9.2008
    Mahler, Rudolf
    * 11.6.1889
    Widerstand; 20.9.1939 Buchenwald, 15.7.1941 Pirna
    15.07.1941
    Bahnhofsviertel, Münchener Str. 20
    4.6.2011
    Nebel, Georg
    * 7.8.1896
    Widerstand/KPD; Volksgerichthof/KPD
    14.08.1944
    Fechenheim, Lachnerstr. 4
    16.5.2015
    Nees, Julius
    * 28.9.1898
    Widerstand; 1941 „Hochverrat, Preungesheim, Hinrichtung
    17.09.1942
    Sachsenhausen, Offenbacher Landstr. 9
    22.6.2014
    Neumann, Hermann
    * 16.3.1901
    Widerstand/KPD; 7.11.1934–30.5.1935 Frankfurt, 1935–39 Kassel-Wehlheiden, 5.1.1939 F-Hammelgasse, 13.3.1939 Dachau, 27.9.1939 Mauthausen
    15.2.1940
    Niederrad, Kelsterbacher Str. 24
    22.6.2017
    Ochs, Heinrich
    * 17.3.1905
    Widerstand; 1941 „Hochverrat" F-Preungesheim, Suizid
    ?.?.1942
    Bahnhofsviertel, Niddastr. 63
    22.6.2014
    Portune, Andreas
    * 17.2.1905
    Widerstand; 22.3.1943 Gefängnis Frankfurt, 1944 KZ Roßlau
    23.5.1945
    Nordend, Weberstr. 64
    24.6.2017
    Roman, Emanuel
    * 22.11.1883
    Widerstand ; 13.3.1935–13.3.1941 Kassel-Wehlheiden, 13.3.1941 Buchenwald
    12.5.1941
    Innenstadt, Heiligkreuzgasse 22
    24.6.2017
    Sauer, Balthasar
    * 10.2.1883
    Widerstand; 1942 Haft in Dachau, 1944 Lublin, Januar 1945 Auschwitz
    7.1.1945
    Innenstadt, Allerheiligenstr. 26
    15.10.2004
    Schabinger, Heinrich
    * 20.5.1911
    Widerstand KPD; Haft 3.3.1935 und 2.12.938, 24.7.1941 Flossenbürg
    27.3.1942
    Niederrad, Herzogstr. 9
    21.6.2020
    Schellhaas, Margarete
    (Reuel)
    * 27.7.1910
    asozial/Widerstand; 9.–14.6.1942 Gefängnis Frankfurt, 30.10.1944 Ravensbrück
    7.1.1945
    Niederrad, Hahnstr. 18
    22.6.2017
    Schmitt, Karl
    * 23.10.1894
    asozial/Widerstand; 26.1.1939 Haft Frankfurt, 10.2.1939 Buchenwald
    24.12.1939
    Niederrad, Hahnstr. 18
    22.6.2017
    Schuhmann, Friedrich
    * 12.8.1906
    Widerstand ; Spanischer Bürgerkrieg, Brunete bei Madrid
    6.7.1937
    Höchst, Kurmainzer Str. 20
    8.5.2012
    Schurr, Paul
    * 27.6.1907
    Widerstand; Volksgerichthof
    27.2.1941
    Westend, Im Trutz 24
    16.5.2015
    Sonntag, Paul
    * 10.2.1890
    Widerstand; Brandenburgen, Goerden, hingerichtet
    20.4.1945
    Bockenheim, Robert-Mayer-Str. 48
    21.6.2013
    Tellgmann, Gustav
    * 22.10.1891
    Widerstand; Volksgerichthof
    26.2.1945
    Bockenheim, Robert-Mayer-Str. 47
    18.5.2015
    Wedekind, Arnd von
    * 2.6.1919
    Widerstand; 1.7.1943 verhaftet, 1.9.1943 Volksgerichtshof Todesurteil
    3.9.1943
    Westend, Zimmerweg 4
    5.3.2007
    Wehrle, Herman Josef
    * 26.7.1899
    Widerstand ; 18.8.1944 Berlin
    14.9.1944
    Höchst, Gebeschusstr. 22–24
    25.10.2010
    Weisbecker, Walter
    * 23.5.1912
    Widerstand ; 1935 Zuchthaus Kassel, 1941 Dachau, 1944 Strafbataillon
    03.07.1946
    Niederrad, Gundhofstr. 8
    12.5.2012
    Weisenseel, Eugen
    * 7.6.1899
    Widerstand; 1943 Haft, 1945 Dachau
    unbekannt
    Fechenheim, Löhnungsgasse 19
    28.5.2016
    Zakowski, Elisabeth
    * 18.2.1897
    Widerstand; Haft: 6.9.1936 - 6.3.1940, Frauenstrafanstalt Aichach
    0.1.1900
    Unterliederbach, Karl-König-Weg 36
    24.6.2017
    Zakowski, Josef
    * 12.5.1895
    Widerstand; Haft: 31.8.–2.9.1936 Frankfurt Polizeigefängnis, 16.9.1936 Gefängnis Hammelsgasse 6–10
    26.11.1936
    Unterliederbach, Karl-König-Weg 36
    24.6.2017
    Zeuss, August Wilhelm
    * 25.11.1912
    Widerstand ; 1941 Sachsenhausen, 1942 Dachau, 1944 Majdanek, 14.4.1944 Auschwitz
    14.4.1944
    Nordend, Spohrstr. 34
    3.6.2011
  • Sinti and Roma

    Victim group Sinti and Roma.

    The population group calling itself Sinti and Roma was gradually marginalized, disenfranchised and persecuted by the National Socialists starting in 1933. The Nazi regime applied the regulations of the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 to the estimated 30,000 Sinti and Roma living in Germany. In November 1936, the “Rassehygieneinstitut” (Racial Hygiene Institute) was established at the Reichsgesundheitsamt (Reich Health Office) under the direction of Robert Ritter, which primarily collected data on Sinti and Roma. In June 1938, several hundred Sinti and Roma were arrested and deported to concentration camps during the “Arbeitsscheu Reich” campaign, which targeted people classified as “asozial” (antisocial). Starting in March 1939, Sinti and Roma received “Rasseausweise” (race ID) marked with a “Z” instead of their confiscated German passports.

    The city of Frankfurt played an inglorious pioneering role in the persecution of the Roma and Sinti. On August 18, 1937, 55 women, children and men living in a caravan site on Kruppstraße were herded together to Dieselstraße in the Osthafen. Of the Roma and Sinti living in Frankfurt am Main, 172 people were interned in “Zigeunerlagern” (gypsy camps) on Dieselstraße and Kruppstraße, eight people were forcibly sterilized, 174 people were deported to Auschwitz, and at least 89 were murdered there.

    List of stumbling stones in Frankfurt commemorating Sinti and Roma:

    Name (Geburtsname)
    Geburtsdatum
    Verfolgungsschicksal
    Todesdatum
    Stadteil, Straße
    Verlegedatum
    Adler, Gertrud
    * 1.8.1937
    Sinti; 9.3.1943 Auschwitz
    03.08.1944
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Adler, Gisela
    * 18.8.1925
    Sinti; 9.3.1943 Auschwitz
    03.08.1944
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Adler, Heinz
    * ?.?.1927
    Sinti; 9.3.1943 Auschwitz
    befreit
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Adler, Herbert
    * 18.11.1928
    Sinti; 9.3.1943 Auschwitz
    befreit
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Adler, Margarethe
    (Braun)
    * 3.7.1903
    Sinti; 9.3.1943 Auschwitz
    03.08.1944
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Adler, Reinhold
    * 26.9.1898
    Sinti; 9.3.1943 Auschwitz
    01.05.1943
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Adler, Rolf
    * ?.?.1931
    Sinti; Lager F-Dieselstraße und Kruppstraße
    03.11.1942
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Adler, Ursula
    * 30.10.1938
    Sinti; 9.3.1943 Auschwitz
    03.08.1944
    Sachsenhausen, Löherstr. 21
    3.6.2011
    Klein, Kunigunde
    (Winterstein)
    * 2.3.1884
    Sinti; 17.8.1940 Ravensbrück
    unbekannt
    Altstadt, Kannengießergasse 6
    16.2.2009